death camps, as the Vintage Music 80s 90s A Cassette Tape With Pencil Winding Up Shirt had done, but instead sent them to forced labor camps called the UMAP between 1965-1968. Homosexuality was seen as a sign of bourgeois corruption and ‘manly’ work was supposed to reeducate them and make them men again. Treatment at the camps could be brutal and is still a stain on Cuba’s record.
After a great deal of domestic and international pushback, Fidel Castro closed the camps in 1968. This was, however, the same year he began the Gran Ofensiva Revolucionario, grand revolutionary offensive, which nationalized the remainder of the private sector. It was also the same year that works by authors like Heberto Padilla and Anton Aruffat got their work published by the State publishing houses with warnings for their problematic ideological content.
In 1971 the Congress on Education and Culture cemented homophobia as a matter of government policy by prohibiting homosexuals from being in positions of power, such as teaching, from which they could feasibly ‘recruit’ people. It also inaugurated the so-called Grey Quinquennial (Quinquenio Gris), a five year period of extremist ideological orthodoxy and heightened homophobia. Some gay men, like Alfredo Guevara (no relation to Che), were in privileged positions, having known Fidel for years or having other important protectors, and were thus shielded from the worst of it. Most were not so lucky. Especially since one consequence of the mass nationalizations of 1968 was that those gay bars that did exist were turned over to the State, destroying what havens gay Cuban men had. (I will note here that most scholars, including myself, are more familiar with persecution of gay men than persecution against Lesbians, which seems to have been a lower priority for Cuban homophobes
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